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“Rich” Nutrition Linked to Poor Mental Health

killer-fast-foodPsychological stress is known to increase the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The deriving inflammation is accompanied by an accumulation of highly reactive oxygen species, also known as oxidative stress, which is a contributing factor in the development of severe depression. A diet rich in antioxidants, vitamins, minerals and fiber is associated with reduced systemic inflammation. Conversely, diets that are low in essential nutrients, such as magnesium and sugar- and fat-rich western diets are associated with increased systemic inflammation.

A new study of 3040 Australian adolescents 11 to 18 years of age collected information on diet and mental health by self-report and anthropometric data by trained researchers. Improvements in diet quality were mirrored by improvements in mental health over the follow-up period, while deteriorating diet quality was associated with poorer psychological functioning. Researchers concluded that the quality of one’s nutrition is associated with adolescent mental health both cross-sectionally and prospectively. Moreover, improvements in diet quality were mirrored by improvements in mental health, while reductions in diet quality were associated with declining psychological functioning over the follow-up period.

There are many ways in which an insufficiency of healthy foods and/or an excessive intake of unhealthy and processed foods may increase the risk for mental health problems in adolescents. Fruits and vegetables, as well as other components of a healthy diet such as whole grains, fish, lean red meats and olive oils, are rich in important nutrients such as folate, magnesium, b-group vitamins, selenium, zinc, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, polyphenols and fiber. Many of these nutrients have already been reported as of importance in depressive illnesses, however the critical importance of these food components as modulators of reactive oxygen species (inflammation) and immune system functioning, both pathophysiological substrates of depressive illness is increasingly appreciated.

stressed-dessertsA new meta-analysis, reporting on data collected at many time points and thus more reliable, has reported large generational increases in self-reported mental health problems among American high school and college students between the 1930s and 2007. Paralleling this increase in the rates of psychological illness among young people are data indicating a reduction in the quality of adolescents’ diets over recent decades. A report based on trends in adolescent food consumption in the US identified a reduction in the consumption of raw fruits, high-nutrient vegetables and dairy foods, which are important sources of fiber and essential nutrients, between 1965 and 1996, with an associated increase in the consumption of fast food, snacks and sweetened beverages.

Concurrently, population surveys demonstrate a substantial increase in overweight and obesity among children and adolescents over recent decades. Obesity does not necessarily indicate nutritional deficiency: paradoxically, high-energy foods typically have poor nutrient content.

Fast Food, Depression and Anxiety

Another study of 5731 men and women 46 to 49 and 70 to 74 years of age found that those with better quality diets were less likely to be depressed, whereas a higher intake of processed and unhealthy foods was associated with increased anxiety.

USA-Obesity-RateA third study examined the extent to which the high-prevalence mental disorders are related to habitual diet in 1,046 women 20–93 years of age. Results showed that a “traditional” dietary pattern characterized by vegetables, fruit, meat, fish, and whole grains was associated with lower odds for major depression or log-term depression (dysthymia) and anxiety disorders. A western diet of processed or fried foods, refined grains, sugary products, and beer was associated with a higher prevalence of mental disorders. These results demonstrate an association between habitual diet quality and a higher prevalence of mental disorders.

In a fourth study (1999–2010) of 12,059 Spanish university graduates discovered a detrimental relationship between a diet rich in trans unsaturated fatty acids (TFA) and depression risk, whereas weak inverse associations were found for monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and olive oil. These findings suggest that cardiovascular disease and depression may share some common nutritional determinants related to fat intake.

Most notably, results of a 2010 randomized placebo controlled trial showed that fish oil supplements prevented conversion from a subthreshold psychotic state to full-blown schizophrenia. Another recent randomized controlled trial study suggested that omega-3 supplements may help reduce anxiety.

Lower DHA Intake Linked to Higher Suicidality

ChileVolcanoEruption_EN-US1005377464Low levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the major omega-3 fatty acid concentrated in the brain, may increase suicide risk. A retrospective case-control study published in the most recent issue of the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry of 1600 United States military personnel, including 800 who had committed suicide and 800 healthy counterparts, showed that all participants had low omega-3 levels. However, the suicide risk was 62% greatest in those with the lowest levels of DHA.

Our findings add to an extensive body of research that points to a fundamental role for DHA and other omega-3 fatty acids in protecting against mental health problems and suicide risks. —  Joseph R. Hibbeln, MD, acting chief, Section on Nutritional Neurosciences at the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland

DHA is found in naturally in fish and nuts and is also available in fish oil supplements. Fish oil supplements can help lower inflammation by decreasing the synthesis of proinflammatory molecules and have been proven beneficial in treating inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn’s disease. Although fish oil has been shown to be less effective in treating other stress-related illnesses such as ulcerative colitis and asthma, some patients do benefit from its intake.

The omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA contained in fish oil are effective in treating both cardiovascular disease and depression, often in combination with other specific medications. Higher levels of EPA and DHA are also associated with increased stress resilience.

Sugary Drinks Linked to Higher Blood Pressure

aaMatisse_1948_PlumBlossomsSoft drinks, sweetened fruit juices, and sugar-loaded sports drinks raise blood pressure, according to a International Study of Macro/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP). The researchers measured the consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks, sugars, and diet beverages (which contain high quantities of glucose and fructose) over the course of four days, administered two 24-hour urine collections and eight blood-pressure recordings, and asked questions about the patients’ lifestyle and medical history. Results show that there is a direct correlation between fructose and glucose intake and increases in blood pressure and that sugar-sweetened beverages are associated with a 1.1-mm-Hg increase in systolic and 0.4-mm-Hg increase in diastolic blood pressure after adjustment for weight and height.

Sugar-sweetened beverages have been linked to high blood pressure, obesity, type 2 diabetes, and heart-disease risk, and this is one more piece of evidence showing that if individuals want to drink these drinks, they should do so in moderation. Also, one of our interesting findings was that the association between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and blood pressure was stronger in people who are consuming more sodium. We already know that salt is bad for blood pressure, but what we’re finding is that if you’re consuming more sodium, you appear to be, at least in this study, exacerbating the effects of these sugar-sweetened beverages.—Lead investigator Dr. Ian Brown (Imperial College London, UK)

Widely Used, Unlikely Stress Reducer: Salt

Sunset at Sea, 1882There may be a very good reason for the impulse to reach for salt-laden foods and snacks. New research from the University of Cincinnati, reported in the April 6, 2011, issue of The Journal of Neuroscience, shows that elevated consumption of salt can reduce the body’s natural stress reaction. Sodium, the main ingredient of salt, inhibits the release of hormones along the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which are released into circulation in reactions to stressors. More specifically, an elevated sodium intake limits the stress reaction by suppressing the release of the octapeptide angiotensin II (Ang II), which provides the major hormonal support of the growth and function of the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex and the secretion of the excitatory hormone aldosterone. Conversely, higher sodium intake increases the activity of oxytocin, an anti-stress hormone.

Life stressors cause an immediate challenge to the body’s homeostatic balance, and cause physiological and psychological reactions that affect hormonal, cardiovascular, and behavioral responses. This new research examined the neural mechanisms underlying the stress reaction within the context of such a homeostatic challenge. The focus was on the impact of an elevated intake of sodium on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the cardiovascular system, and behavior in response to an acute psychological stressor.

Relative to controls whose sodium levels were normal, subjects with elevated salt intake showed a decrease in HPA activation in response to a psychological stressor. In addition, the increase in sodium also reduced the cardiovascular response and promoted faster recovery to pre-stress levels. Even more remarkable, subjects with increased sodium intake had significantly more oxytocin- and vasopressin-containing neurons within the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus and greatly elevated circulating levels of oxytocin. The endocrine and cardiovascular profile of subjects with elevated sodium also produced a decrease in anxiety-like behaviors when they were put through a social interaction test.

The researchers concluded that the results single out sodium as a potent inhibitor of the HPA, cardiovascular, and behavioral aspects of the stress reaction.

Eat More Salt, Feel Less Stress?

Apparently, we are already doing so, by the millions of pounds. Americans have consistently consumed approximately 3,700 mg of sodium daily throughout the last three decades, or nearly 65% more than the recommended daily salt intake of 2,300 mg. Most restaurant food, prepackaged and processed food, deli food, table and bar snacks, and fast food are loaded with salt, sugars and fats. Sodium is added primarily as a flavor enhancer, but also to satisfy our hidden and very powerful salt appetite.

The downside of elevated salt consumption: too much sodium is a precipitating factor in heart failure, an increased risk for gastric cancer, a contributor to hypertension. In fact, the ill-effects of too much sodium consumption are so widespread throughout the body that salt-intake reduction is often one of the first approaches to the treatment of a variety of metabolic conditions. Could it be that this widely used (and tasty) stress reducer is not what it appears to be? Perhaps its “calming” and anxiety reduction effects—much like those of alcohol—come at a price that, if properly understood, we may not be willing to pay.

Can Food Be Stressful? The Evidence

aaRenoir_NiniAuJardinScientific investigators in the 1970s began to ask if a correlation existed between food and behavior. They have discovered quite a few coincidences. New and increasingly more sophisticated studies have revealed the effective existence of a food-behavior correlation in children and older adults. In a review of 10 years of studies conducted between 1985 and 1995, Breakey found evidence of a relationship between what children eat and the way in which they behave. “The most important discovery,” he concluded, “has been the presence—in nearly all studies—of one statistically meaningful variation of behavior as a result of a dietary change” (p. 193). Moreover, these studies have revealed a consistency of response to dietary variations which is also statistically significant. Although other studies have established a correlation between changes in the diet and improvements in hyperactivity and insomnia, Breakey’s unexpected discovery was that the parameter primarily influenced by the intake of certain foods is mood, most of all stress and irritability. According to a recently published study by noted psychoneuroimmunologist Janice Kiecolt-Glaser, diets that promote inflammation (i.e., stress) are high in refined starches, sugar, saturated and transfats, and are low in omega-3 fatty acids, natural antioxidants, and fiber from fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.

A study by Christensen & Christensen investigated the correlation between the course of schizophrenia and national statistics relative to fat consumption. They have found that countries with better prognosis for schizophrenia were those in which the national diet included a higher proportion of fat from fish and from vegetables. In essence, the patients who consumed greater amounts of omega-3 fatty acids showed less severe symptoms, a finding supported by a variety of other studies. If anti-oxidant agents can help in blocking the damage caused by free radicals, the treatment with these food supplements could restore cellular structure. Such a therapy, along with counseling on dietetic factors and lifestyle, could beneficially influence the prognosis of schizophrenia.

New research is also focusing attention on the role that anti-oxidants in the diet may play in the treatment of mood disorders. It is hypothesized that fatty acids may have stabilizing effects on mood with a mechanism similar to that of lithium and of valproic acid, by modifying the pathways of transmission of neuronal signals. In their action on bipolar disorder, they appear to mimic lamotrigine’s mood stabilizing and antidepressant properties. The mechanisms of action must be further clarified, as it is still unclear whether fatty acids show a specific pharmacological effect or a mere compensation of nutritional deficits. The concomitant intake of anti-oxidants vitamins (vitamins C and E) may optimize the effect of fatty acids, further preventing oxidation. A double-blind 4-month clinical study of 30 patients with bipolar disorder has shown the effectiveness of fatty acid supplements in comparison to a placebo (olive oil), added to the usual therapies. The experiment group of patients had a significantly longer period of remission as compared to the control group. Kiecolt-Glaser also cites epidemiological studies that demonstrate significant inverse relationships between annual fish consumption and major depression—the more fish eaten, the lower the prevalence of serious clinical depression.

Adjuvant nutritional therapies have also been studied in patients who showed a relapse despite continuing antidepressant treatment. A double-blind study that added omega-3 or a placebo to the conventional treatment has shown statistically significant improvements in the experiment group in as little as three weeks. Also, melatonin seems to perform as a scavenger of free radicals, beyond its well-known properties of regulation of gonadal function and of biological rhythms (e.g., as a sleep aid). Research data suggest that melatonin may positively influence neurodegenerative processes that are involved in the formation of free radicals and the release of excitatory aminoacids.

Eat Your Way Out of Stress: Orthomolecularity

NabobPass_EN-US212192238The food most of us consume today is not as rich in nutritional value as it once was due to the significant industrial processing it must undergo to be preserved, packaged and shipped and to the significant effects of pollution in the air, water and soil. Therefore, the human body, especially in heavily industrialized societies, ends up receiving far fewer of the vitamins and minerals that are necessary for optimal health. Moreover, additional energy expenditures and therefore caloric consumption are often required to cope with the stress caused by environmental, situational, and psychological agents.

Thus, the use of nutritional supplements, especially vitamins and herbal extracts, has blossomed into a significant industry and constitutes an increasingly large share of how we obtain these essential nutrients. Generic symptoms such as fatigue, headache, and mood changes are now being treated not only with prescribed or over the counter chemical preparations but also through the consumption of mostly unregulated food supplements.

The Good

As far back as 1968, two-time Nobel Prize winner Linus Pauling pioneered scientific research on the beneficial effects of vitamin supplements and coined the term orthomolecular to describe a nutrition-focused therapy that included large doses of food supplements. His research built on the previous work of two Canadian psychiatrists, Abram Hoffer and Humphrey Osmond, who in 1952 had begun to use very large doses of vitamins, in particular those of the B group, for the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Pauling went one step further by attempting to demonstrate the effectiveness of taking very large doses of vitamins in prevention and in therapy. His studies focused on the antiradical effects of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and of the liposoluble vitamins A and E in the stimulation of the immune system. Pauling’s view of the benefits of orthomolecularity launched the modern production and distribution of vitamins, minerals, herbs, or products made from plants, animal parts, algae, seafood, or yeasts.

The Bad and the Ugly

Lately, attention is also being paid to the increasingly worrisome phenomenon of self-medication with unregulated nutritional supplements, such as caffeine-laden energy drinks. A 16-ounce can of an energy drink may contain 13 teaspoons of sugar and the amount of caffeine found in four or more colas. Moreover, this potent mixture of sugars and stimulants is often mixed with alcohol. These products, whose catchy names are Red Bull, Rockstar, Monster and Full Throttle, are increasingly popular among teenagers and young adults, even as young as 10-12 years of age. Unfortunately, these concoctions of uppers and downers have dangerous, even life-threatening, effects on blood pressure, heart rate and brain function, according to a recently released report by the Mayo Clinic’s Foundation for Medical Education and Research.

Best Omega-3 Against Depression

aaInness_1878_AutumnOaksThe polyunsaturated fatty acid omega-3 is an important weapon in combating inflammation, the principal cause of stress-related illness. However, when it comes to helping lift depression, not all types of omega-3 fatty acids are equal. According to a study presented at the 49th Annual Meeting of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology which took place Dec. 5-9 in Florida, only eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) has been shown to produce significant mood improvement in patients with depression. The other type of omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), has no effect on depression.

The two omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA are found together in food (primarily fish and nuts) in a 1:1 ratio, but man-made supplements contain either EPA or DHA or a combination of both, in a ratio that may favor one vs. the other and may vary by manufacturer. In order to take advantage of omega-3’s antidepressant effects, it is therefore important to choose supplements that have an EPA-predominant formulation.

Among the many Omega-3 supplements that are rich in EPA for antidepressant effects, some of the highest rated are NutraSea Herring Oil (with a 3:1 EPA to DHA ratio), AST Bioactive Omega-3 EPA Amino Hybrid (with a 5:1 EPA to DHA ratio), and Pharmax High EPA Fish Oil.

Can Comfort Food Reduce Stress?

MammothHotSprings_EN-US66686672 When eating is a way to tame anxiety instead of hunger, it is an emotion-driven behavior that adds calories, fat, cholesterol and inches to the waistline, while providing at best a temporary relief to feelings of stress and anxiety. So what is emotional eating, does it relieve stress or can it do more harm than good? In this post, we’ll take a look at its symptoms, learn how to distinguish it from real hunger, and how to prevent it from ruining our diet, our mood and our health by stopping it or simply bringing it under control.

How to Recognize Emotional Eating

The normal physiological response to emotional distress caused by a stressor is a noticeable loss of appetite. The stress reaction is a complex physiopsychological mobilization of resources that also causes the blood flow to be temporarily diverted from the digestive system to other parts of the body where it is most urgently needed to activate the fight or flight response, i.e. the musculature and the cardiovascular system. Thus, under normal functioning, the stomach contracts and hunger is reduced during times of stress and anxiety.

When there is an increase in appetite under stress, it may look like a real need for food, but in reality there are several differences between emotional hunger and physical hunger. The most significant difference is the speed at which the urge to eat is felt: emotional hunger appears suddenly or in a matter of minutes, while physically appropriate hunger occurs more gradually.

The next most significant difference is in the type of food that is usually craved during bouts of emotional eating. Specific high-calorie, high-fat and sugar foods, such as pizza, cookies or ice cream, are often the only foods that will satisfy the emotional need. When the appetite is caused by real physiological hunger, there is more willingness to eat a variety of different foods, even ones that we do not ordinarily like as much but that happen to be available (broccoli, Brussels sprouts, day-old soup). 

A third difference is in the way emotional hunger triggers the anxiety to eat right away, whereas normal physical hunger very seldom has an anxiety component attached to it. Another difference is in the way emotional hunger appears to shut off our natural ability to regulate the amount of food we eat at any one sitting, i.e. the ability to stop when the stomach is full. When eating to satisfy an emotional need, there is higher likelihood that the eating will continue until all the food is consumed. Last but not least, guilt often accompanies emotional eating. Physical hunger is very seldom associated with negative emotions such as guilt or regret.

Is Emotional Eating Just a Problem for the Waistline?

In theory, a simple food fix in times of high stress and anxiety does not appear to be a problem. Indeed, occasional use of food to self-soothe and comfort negative feelings is a proven remedy that has been known since the beginning of time. However, the prolonged recourse to food to assuage emotional needs carries significant health risks, chief among them an increase in levels of cortisol, insulin, and lipids, which over time can lead to obesity and the development of metabolic syndrome.

The repeated use of food to alter negative emotions, unfortunately, tends to become less effective over time. This is due to physiological changes that take place, but principally due to the ineffectiveness of food as a coping mechanism. At best, comfort food can act as a distraction from worry. Often, comfort food becomes a metaphor of the “hunger” for the emotional closeness with significant others that could provide the comfort and help that would truly benefit the individual under stress.

How to Stop or Control Emotional Eating

When emotional eating becomes a habit while losing its ability to reduce stress and anxiety, there are ways to manage it and eventually stop it entirely. This is often possible without counseling or medication, but the latter may become necessary when emotional eating has become compulsive and the person simply does not have the psychological resources to bring it under control. The following suggestions may be helpful and worth a try, before seeking professional help.

  • Recognize emotional eating, distinguish it from real hunger, and learn what triggers it.
  • Improve the quantity and quality of sleep by napping or getting to bed earlier. Tiredness may increase the need for an energy boost. Take a nap or go to bed earlier instead.
  • Use an effective stress management program, such as as yoga, exercise, meditation or relaxation techniques. Reducing stress is often the key to eating only when hungry.
  • Give yourself a hunger reality check by asking, “Is my hunger physical or emotional?” Check when you ate the last time, and calculate whether you should be hungry now. Give time to the sudden craving to pass, while trying to make sense of it.
  • A food diary where you note what and how much you eat may be very helpful in establishing the connection between stress, mood changes, sudden cravings, and emotional eating. Awareness is often the first step toward developing options and making better choices.
  • Connect to a support network. When food is a substitute for companionship, friendship, and interpersonal connections, it is more likely to be the one comfort that is readily available. It is a better approach to reach out to family, friends, colleagues or a support group.
  • Boredom can be a powerful trigger of emotional eating. You may snack healthy (low-fat, low-calorie, fresh fruit, vegetables with fat-free dip, unbuttered popcorn) or not at all by choosing to take a walk, watch a movie, play with your pet, listen to music, read, surf the Internet or call a friend.
  • If nothing but comfort food is available and you recognize it clearly as triggered by stress or anxiety, try to practice moderation by dividing the bag of chips into smaller portions and eating only one or two servings. Eating only four bites, according to studies at the Food and Brand Laboratory of Cornell University, may be sufficient to create a positive memory of food that is recalled as just as good an experience than eating the whole thing.

PUFAs-Inflammation-Stress: The Axis of Evil

Nighttime at Stresshacker.comIn a prior post on the benefits of fish oil in preventing stress-related illness, the subject of inflammation—the principal cause of stress-related illnesses—was touched upon briefly. It is of such importance, however, that we return to it today and discuss further the connection between inflammation, stress and low polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) intake.

The Problem: Too much ALA, Not Enough LA

In most industrialized countries, including the United States, we now consume five to 20 times as much proinflammatory omega-6 fatty acids than anti-inflammatory omega-3s. What’s the difference between the two, where do these fatty acids come from, and why is this happening?

Omega-6 and omega-3 are the two major types of PUFAs, contributing between 95 and 98% of dietary PUFA intake. Omega-3’s principal component is linoleic acid (LA) and omega-6’s is a-linoleic acid (ALA). LA is abundant in corn, sunflower, soybean oils, and their margarines. ALA is found in green vegetables, soybean and rapeseed oils, nuts, flaxseed and flaxseed oil. The availability of LA in Western countries increased greatly in the second half of the 20th century, following the introduction and marketing of long-shelf-life cooking oils and margarines. This changed pattern of consumption has resulted in a significant increase of bad-PUFA omega-6 intake vs. good-PUFA omega-3.

Why Do We Need PUFAs?

PUFAs are important in the membrane protein function of human cells, in maintaining
membrane fluidity, in regulating cell signaling and gene expression, and in overall cellular
function. It is through the interactions of fatty acids that anti-inflammatory agents in the bloodstream can pass through blood vessel walls and reach the site where their intervention is needed.

Inflammation can be caused by a physical pathogen (an insect bite, a burn, or a traumatic injury), or by a stressful event that triggers the body’s defensive mechanisms and causes the release of inflammatory agents such as norepinephrine and cortisol in the blood stream. PUFAs are active in facilitating the removal of inflammation induced by either a physical pathogen or by stress.

Which PUFAs Reduce Stress?

Omega-6 and omega-3 PUFAs play different roles in facilitating anti-inflammatory responses. Research indicates that it is the ratio between these fatty acids that is most important in preventing or reducing the severity of stress-induced diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, and inflammatory bowel syndrome. A favorable ratio of LA (eating foods rich in omega-3) vs. ALA (eating less food that contains omega-6) appears to produce the best anti-inflammatory effects.

Foods Rich in Omega-3 Fatty Acids

  • Nuts: walnuts.
  • Vegetables: kidney beans, navy beans, tofu, winter and summer squash, broccoli, cauliflower, green beans, romaine lettuce, and collard greens.
  • Fruits: raspberries and strawberries.
  • Meats: free-range beef and poultry.
  • Fish: herring, mackerel, sturgeon, salmon, and anchovies.

Is Fish Oil a Cure for Chronic Stress?

Paphos_EN-US3975269776Fish oil may be just what the doctor orders in combating the effects of chronic stress. Its ingredients are powerful anti-inflammatory agents. But what does inflammation, which is a response of the body to injury or irritation, have to do with stress and how is fish oil able to neutralize it? Let’s take a closer look.

The principal cause of stress-related illness is inflammation. Inflammation is the rapid and nonspecific response of human organisms to danger, usually caused by a physical pathogen (an insect bite, an open flame, an injury) that attacks the body’s integrity. Inflammation is also triggered, however, in response to a psychological threat. When a stressful event or situation triggers the release of norepinephrine and other hormones during the stress reaction, the immediate mobilization of the body’s defense excites and energizes metabolic, vascular and immune systems. Inflammation is capable of damaging tissues and organs if not controlled. To prevent such damage, anti-inflammatory molecules cortisol, interleukin-10, and growth factor-p are released and suppress the inflammation.

What happens when the stressor persists or is not resolved? When inappropriate, excessive, or long-lasting, the stress response (and the attending inflammation) morphs into chronic stress, which is the underlying cause of many diseases of the heart, lungs, digestive system and muscular structures. Thus, it can be said that the inflammation resulting from continuing stress or inadequate responses to a stressor is the major factor contributing to coronary heart disease, irritable bowel syndrome, asthma, muscular tension and pain, and many other stress-related illnesses.

The Best Defense Against Chronic Stress

Naturally, the best defense against stress is keeping it from becoming chronic. As long as stressors are resolved, avoided or eliminated as they come up, the body has a remarkable capacity to return to a natural state of relaxation. Addressing relationship issues, problems at work, or health challenges in a timely and effective way is the best remedy against stress. Putting things off or denying their existence is seldom a good choice and often leads to a persistent state of alarm that is the precursor to the more serious consequences of chronic stress.

What about fish oil? Read about new research findings on its anti-inflammatory benefits after the jump.

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