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Just 14 of the Many Facets of Stress

aaTintoretto_SanGiorgioDragoMRI scans have revealed that children of depressed mothers have a larger amygdala, a part of the brain associated with emotional responses, researchers from the University of Montreal explained in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS).

A new study published in the American Journal of Industrial Medicine reveals that the World Trade Center attacks affected the health of the New York City Fire Department (FDNY) resulting in more post-9/11 retirements than expected.

Researchers in the Hotchkiss Brain Institute (HBI) at the University of Calgary’s Faculty of Medicine have uncovered a mechanism by which stress increases food drive in rats.

Do you run when you should stay? Are you afraid of all the wrong things? An enzyme deficiency might be to blame, reveals new research in mice by scientists at the University of Southern California.

Constant bitterness can make a person ill, according to Concordia University researchers who have examined the relationship between failure, bitterness and quality of life.

Listening to music or sessions with trained music therapists may benefit cancer patients. Music can reduce anxiety, and may also have positive effects on mood, pain and quality of life, a new Cochrane Systematic Review shows.

Researchers at Harvard-affiliated McLean Hospital have found that those who believe in a benevolent God tend to worry less and be more tolerant of life’s uncertainties than those who believe in an indifferent or punishing God.

Knowing the right way to handle stress in the classroom and on the sports field can make the difference between success and failure for the millions of students going back to school this fall, new University of Chicago research shows.

An 8-week course of stress-reducing Transcendental Meditation resulted in a 50% reduction in PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder) symptoms among Iraq/Afghanistan veterans, researchers reported in Military Medicine. The pilot study involved five veterans aged 25 to 40 years with PTSD symptoms – they had all served between 10 and 24 months and had been involved in moderate or heavy moderate combat.

When parents fight, infants are likely to lose sleep, researchers report. "We know that marital problems have an impact on child functioning, and we know that sleep is a big problem for parents," said Jenae M. Neiderhiser, professor of psychology, Penn State. New parents often report sleep as being the most problematic of their child’s behavior.

By helping people express their emotions, music therapy, when combined with standard care, appears to be an effective treatment for depression, at least in the short term, said researchers from the University of Jyväskylä in Finland who write about their findings in the August issue of the British Journal of Psychiatry.

Young adults whose mothers experienced psychological trauma during their pregnancies show signs of accelerated aging, a UC Irvine-led study found. The researchers discovered that this prenatal exposure to stress affected the development of chromosome regions that control cell aging processes.

A child who has a psychological adversity or a mental disorder that starts during childhood has a higher chance of developing a long-term (chronic) physical condition later on, researchers from the University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand reported in Archives of General Psychiatry. The authors explain that child abuse has been linked to a higher chance of adverse physical health outcomes.

Individuals with anxiety-related symptoms who self-medicate with drugs or alcohol have a higher risk of having a substance abuse problem and social phobia, researchers from the University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada, revealed in Archives of General Psychiatry.

Abuse in Childhood May Mean Shorter Life

aavanGogh_1885_AutumnLandscapeAccording to an analysis by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the experience of verbal, physical, sexual abuse, or severe family dysfunction, such as an incarcerated, mentally ill, or substance-abusing family member, domestic violence, or absence of a parent because of divorce or separation, is directly linked to serious problems in adulthood, which may include substance abuse, depression, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and premature death.

The combination of risky behaviors such as substance abuse, the effects of severe depression on variables such as suicide, and the incidence of deadly diseases such as diabetes and cancer contribute to an elevated risk of early death in adults who experienced abuse and dysfunctional family environments. More specific studies have confirmed that individuals with six or more adverse childhood experiences were almost twice as likely (1.7  times) to die before age 75 and 2.4 times more likely to die before age 65 years, i.e. below to well below normal life expectancies.

The CDC analyzed information from 26,229 adults in five US states (Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Tennessee, and Washington) using the 2009 ACE (Adverse Childhood Experience) module of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), which is operated by state health departments in cooperation with the CDC. The results of the analysis show that 59.4% of the interviewed reported having at least one adverse childhood experience, and 8.7% reported five or more.

The prevalence of each adverse childhood experience ranged from a high of 29.1% for household substance abuse to a low of 7.2% for having an incarcerated family member. Over one quarter (25.9%) of respondents reported having experienced verbal abuse, 14.8% reported physical abuse, and 12.2% reported sexual abuse. In measures of severe family dysfunction, 26.6% reported separated or divorced parents, 19.4% reported that they had lived with someone who was depressed, mentally ill, or suicidal, and 16.3% reported witnessing domestic violence.

The analysis reiterates the risk for long-term impact on health and mortality of childhood abuse, stress and trauma. Numerous studies (Sansone & Poole, Ozer, Best, et al., Heim, Newport, et al., Bremner et al., to cite only a few of the most recent) have confirmed the positive and significant correlations between childhood physical abuse, emotional abuse, and witnessing violence and the number of psychophysiological and pain disorders in adulthood.

Children Are Dangerously Stressed and Their Parents Are…Out to Lunch

One nation, under stress, with sleeplessness and anxiety for all.

US_Flag_Flying_1A nationwide survey about stress has revealed a worrisome disconnect between what parents believe causes stress in their children, or that their children have any stress at all, and what the children themselves consider seriously stressful. Here are some of the most disconcerting findings.

  • Stress and worry about their family’s financial difficulties are having a significant impact on young people, and their parents either don’t know it or don’t believe it.
  • Children are more likely to have experienced difficulty sleeping in the past month than their parents know about.
  • Fewer parents than children believe that children’s stress has increased in the past year.
  • Parents appear to be unaware of the degree to which children report physical symptoms like headaches that are often associated with stress.
  • Children are four times more likely to report having eaten too much or too little in the past month than their parents noticed.

The recent survey, Stress in America by the American Psychological Association, reveals that American children are not getting the attention or the support they need to identify and understand stress or to learn healthy strategies for managing its effects.

The full executive summary of the survey is available from the APA here. It is not an easy or comfortable read.  Over 40% of Americans report that their stress has increased in the last year. The same percentage report that they lay awake at night because of stress. And the same percentage again say they eat too much or eat unhealthy foods because of stress.

Research News: PTSD, Attachment and Healing

Leutze_1851_WashCrossDelaware The number of suicides reported by the Army has risen to the highest level since record-keeping began three decades ago. Last year, there were 192 among active-duty soldiers and soldiers on inactive reserve status, twice as many as in 2003, when the war began. (Five more suspected suicides are still being investigated.) This year’s figure is likely to be even higher: from January to mid-July, 129 suicides were confirmed or suspected, more than the number of American soldiers who died in combat during the same period. The New York Times

What Is PTSD?

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can occur after the trauma of experiencing or witnessing  threatened or actual death or serious injury, or other serious threat to the physical integrity of self or others, such as assault. This type of trauma is usually accompanied by intense fear, helplessness, or horror at the time of the event. Symptoms of reliving the trauma and avoiding any reminder of it often create significant distress and negatively affect the individual’s  interpersonal and occupational functioning. In the acute phase, PTSD symptoms can last up to three months after the event. When the symptoms persist longer, PTSD is said to be chronic. Often, symptoms do not begin immediately and they can be delayed for six months or more after the event. When inadequately treated, PTSD can have fatal consequences such as homicide and suicide.

Who Is Affected?

It is estimated[i] that 50%–90% of all people are exposed to at least one serious traumatic event during their lifetimes. However, only about 6%-8% develop PTSD and a third of those suffer a severe form of the condition.

What Are the Causes?

The mechanism by which some individuals are vulnerable to PTSD and not others has been variously hypothesized. The most prominent theories are:

  1. The biological model
    Information about external stimuli and their assessment is processed by the amygdala. Traumatic stressors produce an emotional reaction of fight, flight or freeze and significant increases in stress hormones. The hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex mediate the final response of the individual in trying to cope with the traumatic event. This theory suggests that posttraumatic stress disorder occurs when there is a failure to regulate the activity of the amygdala, which results in hyper-reactivity to threat (what is often referred to as the amygdala hijack).
  2. The early childhood experiences model
    Most researchers have found that childhood trauma, chronic adversity, and family stressors increase the risk for PTSD in adulthood.
  3. The traumatic memory model 
    A theory that has gained prominence in recent years, it distinguishes between memories that are easily recalled and are associated with emotions related to the trauma and repressed memories that cannot be deliberately accessed and are associated with typical PTSD symptoms such as nightmares and flashbacks.
How Is It Treated?

Most treatments for PTSD consist of techniques that expose the individuals to imagined re-experiencing of the trauma under safe therapeutic conditions, an approach that dates back to the treatment of World War II veterans. This type of treatment includes extensive emotional processing and narrative reconstruction of traumatic events in psychotherapy session, and may also include daily home review of audiotaped sessions.

Other efficacious treatments are cognitive behavioral psychotherapy and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). These treatments also induce patients to consciously review (and thus reprocess) painful details of their traumatic experience in a therapeutically safe environment.

PTSD and Childhood Attachment

A recent study[ii] by Columbia and Cornell researchers suggests that childhood attachment problems may play a crucial role in the development of adult PTSD and that exposure treatment may not be the sole important treatment mechanism.

According to attachment theory, secure and insecure childhood attachment to the primary caregiver (most often the mother) has important consequences for adult functioning and psychopathology. The theory, developed by British psychologist, psychiatrist and psychoanalyst John Bolwby, suggested that the innate human drive to form attachments that elicit protective, caretaking behaviors from adults is a crucial aspect of healthy infant development. When the caregivers are available and responsive, the infant develops a secure attachment “base” that facilitates the child’s exploration of the world and relationships. When the caregivers are absent or uncaring, an insecure attachment style results, with consequences for adult self-esteem, perceived safety and interpersonal functioning.
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