Evidence of a direct link between cell phone use and mental health problems just keeps on coming. A major prospective study over a period of one year of young adults who used their cell phones frequently reveals significant disturbances to sleep patterns, increased stress symptoms, and an increased incidence of clinical depression. Researchers at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden investigated possible negative health effects of mobile phone exposure. The study, published this month in BioMed Public Health, focused on the psychosocial variables of mobile phone use and their possible effects on the mental health symptoms in a group of over 4,000 young adults.
Cell phone exposure variables in the study included the frequency of cell phone use, the demands on availability put on the individual, the perceived stressfulness of accessibility, the effects of being awakened at night by the phone, and instances of personal overuse of the cell phone. The mental health outcomes included in the study were current stress levels, symptoms of sleep disorders, and symptoms of depression. Prevalence ratios were calculated first as a baseline at the beginning of the study, and one year later. Mental health outcomes for men and women were studied separately. Any participant who reported mental health symptoms at baseline was excluded from the study.
A detailed analysis of results showed a cross-sectional association between high cell phone use and elevated stress levels, increased sleep disturbances, and more frequent symptoms of depression for both men and women. High cell phone use was associated with sleep disturbances and symptoms of depression among men and symptoms of depression among women at 1-year follow-up. All exposure variables showed a correlation with mental health outcomes. In particular, cell phone overuse appeared to increase stress and sleep disturbances among women, and high accessibility appeared to produce elevated stress, sleep disturbances, and symptoms of depression among both men and women.
The researchers concluded that a high frequency of cell phone use over a period of one year is a risk factor for stress, sleep and mood disorders among young adults. The frequency of mental health symptoms was greatest among those who had perceived their near-constant accessibility via cell phones to be stressful.