Can music reduce stress? Yes, and the evidence is strong. Music can reduce stress, lessen pain, diminish hostility and have a positive effect on emotions and cognition. Beginning with an experimental study by Hatta and Nakamura (1991), researchers have continued to investigate the effects of relaxing music on psychological stress, finding good evidence of its benefits. Rhythmic music may change brain function and treat a range of neurological conditions, including attention deficit disorder and depression, suggested scientists who in 2006 gathered with ethnomusicologists and musicians at Stanford’s Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics. The diverse group came together for the symposium, “Brainwave Entrainment to External Rhythmic Stimuli: Interdisciplinary Research and Clinical Perspectives.”
Music with a strong beat stimulates the brain and ultimately causes brainwaves to resonate in time with the rhythm, research has shown. Slow beats encourage the slow brainwaves that are associated with hypnotic or meditative states. Faster beats may encourage more alert and concentrated thinking… Most music combines many different frequencies that cause a complex set of reactions in the brain, but researchers say specific pieces of music could enhance concentration or promote relaxation… Studies of rhythms and the brain have shown that a combination of rhythmic light and sound stimulation has the greatest effect on brainwave frequency, although sound alone can change brain activity. This helps explain the significance of rhythmic sound in religious ceremonies. – Stanford University News Services, 2006
Music therapy is now considered a useful adjunct in the treatment of many illnesses including cancer, stroke, heart disease, headaches, and digestive problems. There are numerous reports that music played before, during or after surgery reduces anxiety, lessens pain, reduces the need for pain medication and reduces recovery time.
In 2010, Wesa, Cassileth & Victorson published evidence in Focus on Alternative and Complementary Therapies Journal that music dramatically decreases distress for women hospitalized in a high-risk obstetrics/gynecology setting. In 2009, a group of scientists headed by Thaut & Gardiner confirmed that music therapy can improve executive brain functions and contributes to better emotional adjustment in traumatic brain injury rehabilitation. Their study examined the immediate effects of neurologic music therapy (NMT) on cognitive functioning and emotional adjustment with brain-injured persons and a control group. The patients who received the music treatment showed a statistically significant improvement in executive function and overall emotional adjustment, reduced depression, lessened sensation seeking, and lower anxiety. Control participants, who did not receive the music treatment, showed decreases in memory, less positive emotion, and higher anxiety.
An extensive study by Good, Anderson, et al. (2005) tested three non-pharmacological treatments—one of which was music therapy—for pain relief following intestinal surgery in a randomized clinical trial. The 167 patients were randomly assigned to one of three intervention groups or control. The results showed significantly less pain in the intervention groups than in the control group, resulting in 16-40% less pain.
Finally, a just published German study offers case-study evidence that music therapy has positive effects on basic vital signs, the reduction of pain and on neurological development in newborn babies with health problems. At the other end of life’s spectrum, a very recent study of patients suffering from dementia of the Alzheimer’s type who exhibited disruptive behaviors showed that weekly session of live music therapy- and occupational therapy-based structured activities over 8 weeks resulted in a significant improvement in disruptive behaviors and depressive symptoms.