Tsunami Deja Vu: Greece and Alexandria

800px-Kamakura_tsunamiWe’ve never seen anything like the pictures emanating out of Japan. Modern video and still photography technology give us an unprecedented view of a phenomenon of vast power and consequence. It might seem like something that has never been witnessed before. However, the impact of a tsunami (Japanese: 津波, lit. “harbor wave”), only by chance a Japanese word that has entered into worldwide parlance, was reported in chilling detail by at least two prominent Greek and Roman historians.

Over four centuries before Christ, the Greek historian Thucydides wrote in his History of the Peloponnesian War about a tsunami that had struck Greek coastal towns. We can recognize the imagery more readily now, as it parallels the footage we are seeing out of Sendai, Japan.

thucydidesThe next summer [426 BC] the Peloponnesians and their confederates came as far as the isthmus under the conduct of Agis the son of Archidamus, intending to have invaded Attica; but by reason of the many earthquakes that then happened, they turned back, and the invasion proceeded not. About the same time (Euboea being then troubled with earthquakes), the sea came in at Orobiae on the part which then was land and, being impetuous withal, overflowed most part of the city, whereof part it covered and part it washed down and made lower in the return so that it is now sea which before was land. And the people, as many as could not prevent it by running up into the higher ground, perished. Another inundation like unto this happened in the isle of Atalanta, on the coast of Locris of the Opuntians, and carried away part of the Athenians’ fort there; and of two galleys that lay on dry land, it brake one in pieces. Also there happened at Peparethus a certain rising of the water, but it brake not in; and a part of the wall, the town-house, and some few houses besides were overthrown by the earthquakes. The cause of such inundation, for my part, I take to be this: that the earthquake, where it was very great, did there send off the sea; and the sea returning on a sudden, caused the water to come on with greater violence. And it seemeth unto me that without an earthquake such an accident could never happen.—Thucydides (ca. 430 BC), History of the Peloponnesian War, (89), Thomas Hobbes, Ed., London: Bohn.

Centuries later, Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus described the tsunami caused by a large earthquake that devastated Alexandria, Egypt in 365 AD. In this even more evocative description, the effects of the retreating sea and its catastrophic return are described in terse and dramatic language.

Ammianus_BookWhile that usurper of whose many deeds and his death we have told, still survived, on the twenty-first of July in the first consulship of Valentinian with his brother, horrible phenomena suddenly spread through the entire extent of the world, such as are related to us neither in fable nor in truthful history. For a little after daybreak, preceded by heavy and repeated thunder and lightning, the whole of the firm and solid earth was shaken and trembled, the sea with its rolling waves was driven back and withdrew from the land, so that in the abyss of the deep thus revealed men saw many kinds of sea-creatures stuck fast in the slime; and vast mountains and deep valleys, which Nature, the creator, had hidden in the unplumbed depths, then, as one might well believe, first saw the beams of the sun. Hence, many ships were stranded as if on dry land, and since many men roamed about without fear in the little that remained of the waters, to gather fish and similar things with their hands, the roaring sea, resenting, as it were, this forced retreat, rose in its turn; and over the boiling shoals it dashed mightily upon islands and broad stretches of the mainland, and leveled innumerable buildings in the cities and where else they were found; so that amid the mad discord of the elements the altered face of the earth revealed wondrous sights. For the great mass of waters, returning when it was least expected, killed many thousands of men by drowning; and by the swift recoil of the eddying tides a number of ships, after the swelling of the wet element subsided, were seen to have foundered, and lifeless bodies of shipwrecked persons lay floating on their backs or on their faces. Other great ships, driven by the mad blasts, landed on the tops of buildings (as happened at Alexandria), and some were driven almost two miles inland, like a Laconian ship which I myself in passing that way saw near the town of Mothone, yawning apart through long decay.—Marcellinus, A. (360) Res Gestae, Vol. II, (26) 15-19.

A Peaceful Christmas Everyone!

I heard the bells on Christmas Day
Their old, familiar carols play,
And wild and sweet
The words repeat
Of peace on earth, good-will to men!
 
nativity2
And thought how, as the day had come,
The belfries of all Christendom
Had rolled along
The unbroken song
Of peace on earth, good-will to men!
Till, ringing, singing on its way
The world revolved from night to day,
A voice, a chime,
A chant sublime
Of peace on earth, good-will to men!
Then from each black, accursed mouth
The cannon thundered in the South,
And with the sound
The Carols drowned
Of peace on earth, good-will to men!
And in despair I bowed my head;
‘There is no peace on earth,’ I said;
‘For hate is strong,
And mocks the song
Of peace on earth, good-will to men!’
Then pealed the bells more loud and deep:
‘God is not dead; nor doth he sleep!
The Wrong shall fail,
The Right prevail,
With peace on earth, good-will to men!’

Christmas Bells: A poem by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

Of Washington, Stress, and the Mind

b_800_600_16777215_0_stories_immagini_Inverno_Alba_sul_primo_piazzaleThe way we perceive a situation, and decide whether it is positive or negative, is an active, continuing process of appraisal of the risks, costs, and likely gains of our
possible responses. Three individuals may be stuck in traffic at the same time and each may perceive and appraise the situation quite differently. “OMG,” one may say, “late again, my boss will be furious!” The second may think, “I’m going to be late, but my boss will understand how unpredictable this traffic really is.” The third may settle in, turn on the radio and say, “It’s a good thing I left a little early, I can’t speed this up so I’ll just catch up on the news.”

Depending on this cognitive appraisal of a situation, the stress reaction will mobilize the body to action. The greater the anxiety generated by the situation, the higher the level of physical and psychological arousal. Sometimes, overt behavior will be produced directly by the mobilization of impulses, drives, or wishes. One specific and frequent set of behaviors is likely to occur most frequently, as a behavioral inclination to act in a certain way due to our background, beliefs and available resources. Depending on the content of our thoughts about the situation, the behavioral inclination may be a desire to withdraw (flight), attack (fight), approach, or avoid (freeze). The emotions corresponding to these inclinations are anxiety, anger, affection, and sadness, respectively. The ultimate response to a stressor can be conceptualized as a structure of the mind, where a set of beliefs about one’s self, the world, and the outcome activates and controls the behavioral inclination and the emotional response.

Life’s stressors, especially if significant to our physical, psychological and social well-being can disrupt the normal activity of the mind. In addition to almost immediate loss of the ability to concentrate, recall, reason and control impulses, a severe and unexpected stressor produces a relative increase in instinctive, more primitive, and less rational processes. Instinctive reactions are usually paired to specific stimuli. These almost mandatory reactions are characteristic to the specific sensitivity of each individual. They can give way to inappropriate or excessive behavioral reactions. For example, the need for a stiff drink, reaching for a cigarette, crying, or being unable to breathe or move can be automatic, with little insight and thus virtually unstoppable.

The wide differences between people in their specific sensitivities explains why an event that is an almost unbearable stressor for one person may be an annoying or even benign situation for another. The seasoned public speaker may still get butterflies in the stomach, but is able to carry on and deliver an excellent presentation, whereas another may be terrified at the very idea of speaking before an audience.

Core differences in one’s personality also account for the wide variations in individual
sensitivities to stressors. The independent and somewhat misanthropic personality will not be sensitive to the same stressor as the individual who craves human connection and feels dependent on it for validation. Excessive or ineffective reactions to stressors, such as hostility, anxiety, and depression, also result from specific behavioral inclinations, personality structure, and specific sensitivities.

Finally, reactions to stressors may be dictated primarily by one’s internal motivations, with no apparent connection to the events or circumstances of the outside world. For example, the belief that the only road to happiness is through total success is characteristic of achievement-oriented individuals who are therefore extremely vulnerable to excessive and ineffective reactions at the slightest doubt of failure—regardless of evidence to the contrary.

Obama & Boehner at Stresshacker.comStressful interactions with other people who may be equally as stressed, albeit for different reasons, produce a mutually reinforcing cycle of excessive and ineffective reactions. Specific psychological mechanisms, such as an egocentric approach, negative framing, and polarization, increase the level of arousal experienced by each individual and, consequently, to higher and higher levels of collectively shared stress. This cycle seems to be in evidence at this time in Washington, as the executive and legislative powers appear to be locked in a mutually reinforcing cycle of excessive and ineffective reactions to each other.

9 Ways to Beat Procrastination…Tomorrow.

Langisjor_EN-US2321196967Procrastination is three times as stressful as getting things done right away. First, because tasks that need doing aren’t getting done; second, because it is stressful to think about all that needs to be done…and remains undone. Third, procrastination in itself is a source of stress due to its impact on self-esteem and psychological well-being.

Procrastination is a delay in deciding to start a task or in completing it. Men and women in roughly equal percentage suffer from this debilitating condition. Situational procrastination happens to everyone and simply describes an occasional delay that does not indicate a habitual pattern. Dispositional procrastination applies to people who delay many tasks on a regular basis, including tasks that are important and sometimes even critical to optimal functioning. Among dispositional procrastinators, two major types can be discerned based on their presumed motivation: arousal procrastinators, who (often subconsciously) need to be motivated to act by the adrenaline rush that comes from cutting it close to the deadline, and avoidant procrastinators, who are de-motivated to act by their fear of failure or success and/or by task aversion.

Here are nine ways to beat procrastination that have been proven to work with many people. (Try one or two, if you have some time…perhaps tomorrow?)

1. Learn to Tell Time

lastminuteHabitual procrastinators, even when faced with simple tasks, don’t seem as capable to estimate the time necessary to perform the task as non-procrastinators. They overestimate how much time it will take to finish the task, and are therefore reluctant to begin it; or they underestimate how long it will take to complete it, and are afraid of not being able to finish it. Learning to better estimate time to task completion is a skill that needs to be developed by procrastinators who, for whatever reason, seem to fall short of its mastery.

GTD-cover2. Banish Disorganization

Not being able to plan a task, misplacing some of the things needed to perform a task effectively, or losing track of what has already been done are areas that cause people to delay starting a task or its completion.

Getting rid of the very idea of disorganization is the start of a better strategy for getting things done. The enormously popular book Getting Things Done: The Art of Stress-Free Productivity may help…

3. Post-It and Read It

Sometimes the simplest things carry the most value. Any procrastinator can benefit from the little yellow notes strategically posted in visible locations that act as silent reminders of tasks that need to be done. If the notes are read and acted upon, procrastination can become a less frequent problem.

4. Make It Easy to Concentrate

Not having a specific, designated place in which to concentrate and focus exclusively on a task introduces the scourge of distraction to the misery of indecision. Being in a place where there are too many other stimuli competing for attention is not a winning strategy. Getting in the zone and achieving flow is key to task completion.

LeoMarvin5. Take Baby Steps

Sometimes even a relatively simple task can appear complex, until it is broken down into smaller chunks. Behavioral psychologists recommend chaining, which is a series of responses needed to perform a particular target end-behavior or, in simpler terms, baby steps. Getting things done one small chunk at a time. Simple. It works.

6. Take Small Time Bites

Complexity of the task can be compounded by the (often incorrect) estimation of the total  time needed to complete it. To take care of this aspect of the problem, it helps to break down the task into small bites of time—say, 5-minute segments—instead of staring at the total time needed and freezing in place.

7. Put the 80-20 Rule to Work

Even the best laid out strategy of eliminating procrastination cannot be accomplished in one day. We simply can’t go from “total procrastination” to “total completion” in one fell swoop. A more realistic and achievable plan may be to apply the 80-20 rule, where success means completing at least 80% of the tasks, instead of aiming for 100%.

8. Seek Role Models

Go with a procrastinator and you’ll learn to procrastinate more. Seek non-procrastinators as role models, get past the negative comparisons, and you will learn useful techniques and approaches that may come natural to them, but can be a godsend on the way to getting things done.

9. Take Responsibility

Everyone knows that there are consequences for delays and for failing to get things done. Procrastinators know that, too. Unfortunately, the habit of making excuses that can be accepted by others simply sharpens the skills for coming up with “reasons” that just sound plausible. A procrastinator who is willing to take responsibility is only a few short steps away from kicking the habit.

The Vote: Fear, Anger and Resignation?

IVotedLest Stresshacker be labeled left, right or center, this post is about the prevailing psychological states of US voters that may have prompted the choices made yesterday at the polls in the midterm election. The brief moment in the voting booth when each voter was about to punch, press or pull on the input device was as always the point of real decision, along a continuum of choice either matured over a long and careful analysis of the options or arrived at on the spur of the moment. The vote was either reaction or response, instinct or deliberation. In any case, this vote was a blend of rationality, emotion and convenience, a culminating of feelings that translates into a choice.

Americans voted not only with their minds and hands, but also and perhaps mostly with their hearts. They voted for or against their congressman, their senator, Congress in general, and president Obama. Former speaker Tipp O’Neill said famously that all politics is local, meaning that in his view decisions are made at the polls mostly on the record of the local incumbent and challenger. The advent of 24/7 news access and the impact of social media may have changed this to the point where those who lost or won their seat may have been helped or hindered, more than used to be the case, by a broader and more macroscopic view.

Voters, interviewed extensively by news media as they exited their polling stations, reported not liking the way the President is doing his job, and they sounded even angrier at Congressional Democrats, which may explain why they gave the House back to the Republicans. Given the magnitude of the shift, it also appears that Obama policies passed through the filter of voter anxiety, as voters looked back at a decade of economic decline. And this, only two years after “the audacity of hope” propelled Mr. Obama into the White House, is remarkable in itself.

senateThat this was the most expensive midterm election campaign in the nation’s history, when a record $3.8 billion was spent in all races big and small, only confirms the perception by contributors and recipients of this sizable amount of money that this election reflected more than rational choice—it expressed a mood, a feeling, an emotional reaction pointing to prevailing psychological states that range from simple malaise, to frustration, overt anger and underlying fear. Nothing can focus the mind and the pocketbook like justified fear for one’s present and future situation.

And the situation in the United States appears indeed grim, although it may not be as bad as reported, due to the well-known axiom that good news does not sell newspapers, online clicks or TV commentaries. If there is good news about the economy, it may not be reported with the same alacrity (and a bit of schadenfreude) as the bad. It is therefore not surprising that the interviews with voters conducted for the National Election Pool, a consortium of television networks and The Associated Press, show a majority of Americans saying that the country is headed in the wrong direction. Almost 90% said they were worried about the economy and more than 40% said their family’s situation had worsened in the last two years. Enough to worry and be angry about.

School Bullying Is Much More Than ‘Just What Kids Do’

aaMondrian_BroadwayIs school becoming an increasingly dangerous place for our children’s mental and physical health? A study of 43,321 high school students confirms that student-on-student bullying has become a serious problem in public and private schools across the United States. Its behavioral, health and social consequences are lowered academic achievement and aspirations, increased anxiety, loss of self‐esteem and confidence, depression and PTSD, general deterioration in physical health, self‐harm and suicidal thinking, feelings of alienation in the school environment such as fear of other children, and absenteeism from school. In response to recent high-profile bullying cases, the U.S. Department of Education has sent this letter to over 15,000 school districts across the country, in which school officials are reminded of their responsibility and legal obligation to protect the civil rights of all students, regardless of their nationality, race, sex or disability status.

The study, conducted by the Josephson Institute of Ethics, was released on Tuesday and is the largest ever undertaken of the attitudes and conduct of high school students. The truly sobering results show that 50% of all high school students admit they bullied someone in the past year, and 47% say they were bullied, teased, or taunted in a way that seriously upset them in the past year. 33% percent of all high school students say that violence is a big problem at their school, and 24% say they do not feel safe at school. 52% admit that within the past year they hit a person because they were angry. 10% of students say they took a weapon to school at least once in the past 12 months, and 16% admit that they have been intoxicated at school. The study clearly shows that there is almost no difference between public, religious private and non-religious private schools in the students’ perceived safety, or in the percentage of perpetrators and victims of bullying.

In the press release accompanying the results, Institute Director Michael Josephson said, “If the saying, ‘sticks and stones will break my bones but names will never harm me’ was ever true, it certainly is not so today. Insults, name calling, relentless teasing, and malicious gossip often inflict deep and enduring pain. It’s not only the prevalence of bullying behavior and victimization that’s troublesome. The Internet has intensified the injury. What’s posted on the Internet is permanent, and it spreads like a virus – there is no refuge. The difference between the impact of bullying today versus 20 years ago is the difference between getting into a fist fight and using a gun. The combination of bullying, a penchant toward violence when one is angry, the availability of weapons, and the possibility of intoxication at school increases significantly the likelihood of retaliatory violence.”

Deflation: Chronic Stress on a National Scale

Palmyra_EN-US856764098"The economy isn’t recovering fast enough." One of the principal reasons is that sales of anything, from houses to double no-foam lattes, are down or flat across the board. American consumers are worried about their personal financial health, their jobs (or lack thereof), their families’ future, the sorry state of the economy, gridlock in Washington, and the fear of another bank/mortgage/stock market crash.

The piling up of this real heap of trouble over the last couple of years has caused most Americans to go into stress reaction mode: fight, flight or freeze. The evidence is mounting that most are choosing to freeze. Businesses that sell goods and services report flat or lower sales to fewer buyers. In a so far vain attempt to get the consumer economy moving again, prices have been and continue to be reduced through special offers, discounts, two-fers and other creative ways meant to entice more buyers.

As consumers refuse to take any risk, either because of their worries or simply waiting for prices to fall further, deflation may now be setting in. Deflation is the opposite of inflation and defines a situation when prices are mostly falling, sales stagnate or fall, with "lower business profits, which lead to layoffs and lower consumer spending and further price declines. [Deflation] makes it more difficult to pay off debt because the value of debt rises relative to income. It provokes hoarding, as consumers, businesses and banks hold on to cash, expecting that prices will keep falling," as characterized by the New York Times. In short, the paralysis of freeze

So it is that unending economic turmoil since 2008, record-high job losses, stagnating or falling employment, and the double-whammy mortgage/foreclosure crisis appear to be provoking one of the most severe stress reactions in generations, in individuals, families, and businesses across the nation. While a few are now fighting to get the economy moving again, a significant number may have left the fight and given up trying, and many more still could be just frozen in place, unable to move forward with their decisions, investments, and major purchases.

As understandable as it may be, this nationwide stress reaction is just what it is, a reaction. It is not a formulated response against a severe and persistent set of stressors, which would require the exercise of sound judgment, decision-making and risk-taking. Instead, the risk to the US economy is that this reaction may become chronic and take years before progressing toward an effective response.

The red lights are flashing and the alarm bells are ringing, urging meaningful action that will address the emergency. Not much appears to be happening. Until the paralysis of freeze is overcome and a real response begins, the alarm bells will continue to ring, while deflation takes hold. Chronic stress, on a national scale.

Get Away From the Maddening City—Now!

Blackwell at Stresshacker.com Incidence of schizophrenia and other psychoses is greater in urban than rural areas, but the reason remains unclear. Various studies have found the link between living in the city and severe mental illness, and none have determined a specific cause. A new study claims to have the explanation. The study examined a group of over 200,000 people born between 1972 and 1977 whose medical history was cross-referenced with demographic, school, municipality, and county information.

The study, published this month in the Archives of General Psychiatry examined whether individual, school, or area characteristics could be associated with psychosis and whether the effects of individual characteristics on risk of psychosis varied according to location.

The incidence of psychosis was significantly higher among people living in urban settings as compared to those living in the country.  Further data analysis showed that psychosis appears to be a reflection of the increased social fragmentation that has become a feature of city living.

The principal researcher, Dr. Stanley Zammit of the Center for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and Genomics of Cardiff University, said that previous studies had found that the severity of schizophrenia risk depends on the context of the living situation, with increased risk found for those living in an area with few people of their own ethnicity.

Of this study, Dr Zammit says that "it was somewhat surprising that we found this sort of context-dependent effect across a range of characteristics: ethnicity, social fragmentation, and deprivation. Although it makes sense that such an effect would not be restricted to ethnicity but to potentially any characteristic that might define someone as being different from their peers as they grow up."

With the caution that is characteristic of studies that avoid the presumption of absolute revelation, the researchers point out that much more investigation is needed before it could be said (if ever) that living in the city causes schizophrenia. What can be said from this and other similar studies, however, is that there is a greater risk of developing a severe mental illness such as psychotic disorder for people who live in a predominantly urban setting. Is this enough to make you want to live in the boonies? Maybe not. But this may be another consideration for a move to the more distant ‘burbs.

How Great Companies Minimize Employee Stress

How do truly outstanding companies minimize their employees’ stress? What programs do they implement that appear to make it easier to join the company, fit in well within the organization, grow and prosper as an employee?  In their book, Best Practices in Talent Management: How the World’s Leading Corporations Manage, Develop, and Retain Top Talent, Goldsmith and Carter provide a wealth of examples of on-boarding and talent retention programs that facilitate difficult transitions, demystify the process of change, and contribute greatly to reducing tension and work stress.

The book is the Stresshacker Recommended selection for this week.

[amtap book:isbn=0470499613]

Among the case studies highlighted as best practices:

Avon Products: Clear Objectives = Clearer Execution. This case illustrates the practical implications of defining objectives around “executing on the what” as well as “differentiating on the how.” In other words, simple, well-executed practices communicated through an executive coaching model.

Bank of America: A truly exceptional executive on-boarding program. The B of A’s new hire turnover rate of approximately 12% compares to estimates as high as 40% turnover in large corporations. On-boarding reduces the stress of being new to a large company because it is a socialization process rather than just an orientation program.

Corning Corporation: Making use of the collective wisdom of internal experts rather than relying solely on external consultants. Corning seeks to grow “innovation leaders” through a well-designed 5-step development process.

Ecolab: Employees are successfully integrated into the organization’s corporate culture and values. Values include spirit, pride, determination, commitment, passion, and integrity.

General Electric: To high-stress jobs, GE applies a process of sorting (separating necessary from unnecessary items), setting in order (arranging items in sequence of use), shining (maintaining the work area), standardizing (ensuring consistent application of sorting, setting in order, and standardizing), and sustaining (maintaining and improving the previous four steps).

Kaiser Permanente Colorado Region: A practical approach for addressing the not-uncommon problem of an organization that was too reliant on hiring new people without seeking to develop the people who were already there.

Microsoft: A judicious application of research conducted by the Corporate
Leadership Council (CLC) to real-world problems in the organization. Employee development is organized around five key areas: senior leadership commitment to developing people, managers continuing engagement in the process, promotion of open interpersonal contact among employees throughout the organization, communication of development plans with clear goals, and targeting of on-the-job work experiences to build skills and competency.

Oil Spill Causing Stress Symptoms in Gulf Coast

More than a third [of the Gulf residents surveyed] report children with new rashes or breathing problems, or who are nervous, fearful or “very sad” since the spill began. And even though the gusher of oil has been stanched, almost a quarter of residents still fear that they will have to move.

These are some of the findings of the first major survey of Gulf Coast residents conducted since the BP oil well was successfully capped. The survey, conducted from July 19 to 25 by the National Center for Disaster Preparedness at Mailman School of Public Health at Columbia University, suggests that the spill’s effects have not been contained along with the oil itself. The NYTimes article is at After Spill, Broad Anxiety Among Gulf Resident, Survey Finds – NYTimes.com.

All of the above, plus other reported symptoms such as a persistent and overwhelming level of anxiety, a substantial level of psychological stress, concerns about children’s mental health, more insecurity, and mysterious rashes that can become infected, point to a widespread stress reaction to the oil spill and to its economic and environmental consequences.

Of Mel Gibson, Narcissus and Stress

mel-gibson-oksanaA sad pattern seems to be emerging: as Mel Gibson becomes distressed, some self-medication ensues, allegedly alcohol. The medication, instead of solving the problem, appears to merely loosen Mel’s inhibitions and he unleashes a now painfully public tirade laced with profanity, discrimination, and sexism. In many quarters, his behavior has been described as the epitome of narcissism. But is this really his problem? Let’s consider the story of Echo and Narcissus.

In the vicinity of Mt. Olympus, about 2,500 years ago, the sylvan nymph Echo fell in love with Narcissus. Narcissus was an uncommonly handsome and incredibly vain man who would live on beyond Greek mythology and become the eponym of self-centeredness. He rejected Echo’s love with such callousness and contempt that she died of a broken heart. Apollo, angered by Narcissus’ vanity and cruelty, cursed him to die without ever knowing human love. Not too long afterwards, as a thirsty Narcissus went to a pool of clear water and knelt beside it to drink, he saw his face reflected on the surface of the water and fell in love with it. Unable to reach the image in the water, Narcissus continued to stare at it forgetting everything else, and eventually died beside the pool.

From ancient tale to modern problem, the term narcissism today describes a mental disorder that is characterized by an excessive positive self-evaluation and near-total lack of consideration for others. As a personality type, a narcissist is prone to a grandiose evaluations of self, a constant preoccupation with success and power, an exaggerated sense of entitlement, and an exploitative approach to others. A narcissistic personality shows an enduring pattern of personal adjustment characterized by grandiosity, need for attention and admiration, and a lack of empathy. Individuals with this disorder believe that they are special and are excessively envious of others while being preoccupied with their own achievement and power.

Freud believed narcissism originated in childhood, making it particularly difficult to treat in adults. There is much controversy as to the core problem in narcissism. Some believe it may be primarily an emotional problem; others view it as a cognitive deficit, i.e. the narcissist’s inability to construct an accurate view of self. A third school of thought theorizes that a narcissist is cursed with an ‘‘empty’’ sense of self; yet another group argues that the narcissist may have a ‘‘disorganized’’ self.

The problem that originates all these theories as to the origin of narcissism is produced by the lack of accurate measurements of its impact and severity. Narcissistic people do not admit their problems when asked. When diagnosed, they are very reluctant to cooperate with the treating therapist. In fact, they are widely considered by clinicians as among the most intractable of mental health patients.

In the most recent large-scale research, Russ, Bradley, Shedler, and Westen (2006) have produced evidence that a clinical distinction may be made between grandiose narcissism, characterized by genuinely inflated views of self and a need-gratifying approach toward other people and relationships, and fragile narcissism, characterized by explicit grandiosity paired with feelings of inadequacy or self-loathing.

So where can we place Mr. Gibson along the continuum from normal self-evaluation to narcissism?  If there is narcissism in his personality, would it be the grandiose, or rather the fragile type? Without falling into the trap of long-distance diagnosis, a few comments can be made on his reported behavior. First, if there is self-medication with alcohol as has been reported, the something that is being medicated hurts, perhaps deeply, at the emotional level. Relationship problems, as they have been reported to exist, invariably cause emotional reactivity and chronic sympathetic arousal, i.e. chronic stress. The combination of stress and the disinhibiting effects of self-medication can produce a state of mind that exacerbates any feelings of entitlement, lack of empathy for others and an exploitative approach to problem-solving (a condition popularly known as an amygdala hijack).

It would seem that there is a match with Mr. Gibson’s recently broadcast telephone rants.

iPhone, iPad, iBrain: A Multitasker Paradise?

Multitasking at Stresshacker.com Here’s a (very) short history of information explosion: oral poetry; carved tablets; papyrus; illuminated manuscripts; printing press; radio; television; computer; iPhone; iPad. At each turn, the volume and quality of available information grew, first geometrically, then exponentially. Availability has now far exceeded the capacity, and some say the need, of the human brain to receive, decode, and make use of the data. Volume has also created an additional stressor that was unknown until the latter part of the 20th century: information overload.

Today more than ever, we are exposed to a far larger volume of sensory input than our senses and brain can process. Billions of individual bits of information compete for our attention, requiring us to rapidly determine which needs to be processed, remembered, or used for action. Information can be just data (it’s now 7:15pm) but it can also carry an emotional value (it’s later than I thought!). Emotion-laden stimuli have a special advantage in the competition for our limited attention resources because the correct evaluation of an emotional stimulus may be critical in determining whether it represents a threat (oh no, I’ll miss the start of the game!) or a reward (good, I wont’ have to sit through the previews). See this post on the value of emotion as information.

In spite of the enormous amount of valuable and potentially interesting information that can be ours just for the asking (or the thumbing), more than 99% will not be accessed, processed or remembered. The greater part of the remaining 1% that makes it to our eyes and ears will be discarded by the brain as irrelevant and unimportant. So we are left with an almost insignificant sliver of information that manages to be retained and used in some way. Pity, one might say. Thank goodness, says I.

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Is Love Apart As Good As Love Nearby?

ShipwreckBeach_EN-US2696310123 Being apart is not as satisfying as being together. Certainly true, common sense would say. Well, not so fast. New, more recent research suggests that long-distance relationships can be, and often are, at least as emotionally satisfying as geographically close ones.

The new research comes from Purdue University(i), where researchers studied attachment patterns of individuals in the United States and South Africa who for various reasons were in a committed (married or unmarried) long-distance relationship. The conclusions of the study are that, with a few caveats, love at a distance can be a well-functioning, if not ideal, committed relationship.

Earlier studies had identified severe distress, loneliness, emotional roller-coasters, and generally very problematic outcomes in the separation-temporary reunion-separation cycle of relationships where one or both individuals are pursuing a career goal in another geographic area. Anecdotal evidence abounds as to the heartaches and dissatisfaction of these arrangements, of the tearful goodbyes and too short reunions. The common assumption is therefore that all long-distance relationships are inherently stressful and more vulnerable to break-ups.

By studying attachment patterns between people in close relationships, Purdue researchers have identified the characteristics that make these relationships endure and flourish. Read more to see how they arrived at their conclusions and what they recommend to couples in these situations.

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Runaway Stress Attacks Financial Markets

High anxiety produced the equivalent of a panic attack in the world’s financial markets last Thursday. It was a day reminiscent of the high anxiety, high stress situation in the fall of 2008 when the markets lost almost half of their value in a few weeks.

On Thursday, from the Hang Seng to the Tadawul, from the DAX to Wall Street, fear gripped traders. On Wall Street, shares plunged by nearly 10% of their value and then regained it almost all back by closing time. Millions of dollars were lost and gained in minutes. Automatic halts on trading by computerized safeguards prevented a complete meltdown.

For at least “a discrete period” (i) of a few hours on Thursday, there was “a sudden onset of intense apprehension, fearfulness, or terror, often associated with feelings of impending doom.” (ii)

Among individual traders, “symptoms such as shortness of breath, palpitations, chest pain or discomfort, choking or smothering sensations, and fear of ‘going crazy’ or losing control” (iii) appeared and disappeared throughout the day.

This appeared to be the type of panic attack that was “situationally bound (cued)… occurring on exposure to or in anticipation of the situational cue or trigger.” (iv) The situational cue on Thursday was a real or perceived threat to the world economy by the crisis of confidence in Greece’s ability to meet the obligations of its national debt.

When the panic attack was over on Friday, financial analysts and the rest of us were left to wonder if” “the increased global anxiety threatens to slow the recovery in the United States, where job growth has finally picked up after the deepest recession since the Great Depression.” And if “it could also inhibit consumer spending as stock portfolios shrink and loans are harder to come by.”

For anxiety, stress and panic attacks to be linked to allegedly rational financial evaluations and transactions is nothing new.

The notorious tug of war between quantitative economists and those who believe that financial decisions are to a large extent irrational, continues unabated.

An April 2010 NOVA special on PBS, Mind Over Money asked a very straightforward question: Can markets be rational when humans aren’t?

Thursday’s events would seem to indicate, once again, that mathematically-bound, high-intellect frontal lobe activities such as financial markets are vulnerable to sudden irrationality.

Just like the rest of us.

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Successful Leadership: What Does It Take?

David_NapoleonSt-Bernard In reporting the results of a global survey, Michael Haid discusses the factors that contribute most to exceptional leadership performance. It turns out that it is not what leaders know, i.e. their skill set, but it is how they fit in their company’s culture, how they are motivated by opportunities within the organization, and how they interact with those around them that result in high performance. Read more