According to an analysis by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the experience of verbal, physical, sexual abuse, or severe family dysfunction, such as an incarcerated, mentally ill, or substance-abusing family member, domestic violence, or absence of a parent because of divorce or separation, is directly linked to serious problems in adulthood, which may include substance abuse, depression, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and premature death.
The combination of risky behaviors such as substance abuse, the effects of severe depression on variables such as suicide, and the incidence of deadly diseases such as diabetes and cancer contribute to an elevated risk of early death in adults who experienced abuse and dysfunctional family environments. More specific studies have confirmed that individuals with six or more adverse childhood experiences were almost twice as likely (1.7 times) to die before age 75 and 2.4 times more likely to die before age 65 years, i.e. below to well below normal life expectancies.
The CDC analyzed information from 26,229 adults in five US states (Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Tennessee, and Washington) using the 2009 ACE (Adverse Childhood Experience) module of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), which is operated by state health departments in cooperation with the CDC. The results of the analysis show that 59.4% of the interviewed reported having at least one adverse childhood experience, and 8.7% reported five or more.
The prevalence of each adverse childhood experience ranged from a high of 29.1% for household substance abuse to a low of 7.2% for having an incarcerated family member. Over one quarter (25.9%) of respondents reported having experienced verbal abuse, 14.8% reported physical abuse, and 12.2% reported sexual abuse. In measures of severe family dysfunction, 26.6% reported separated or divorced parents, 19.4% reported that they had lived with someone who was depressed, mentally ill, or suicidal, and 16.3% reported witnessing domestic violence.
The analysis reiterates the risk for long-term impact on health and mortality of childhood abuse, stress and trauma. Numerous studies (Sansone & Poole, Ozer, Best, et al., Heim, Newport, et al., Bremner et al., to cite only a few of the most recent) have confirmed the positive and significant correlations between childhood physical abuse, emotional abuse, and witnessing violence and the number of psychophysiological and pain disorders in adulthood.