Coping is positive response outcome expectancies. This means that the individual expects that he or she will be able to handle the situation with a positive result. In these situations, there is a low level of subjective health complaints and low levels of psychophysiological, psycho endocrine, and psycho immune arousal[i].
Coping can be divided into two general categories:
- Problem-focused coping: those strategies aimed at doing something to solve the problem.
- Emotion-focused coping: its goal is emotion-regulation.
Helplessness and Hopelessness
When it is impossible for the individual to establish coping, other expectancies may develop. When the individual learns that there are no relationships between anything the individual can do and the outcome, we refer to this as helplessness. Overmier & Seligman found that dogs with previous experience with inescapable shocks did not learn avoidance tasks[ii]. They found that this state of “helplessness” generalized to situations where control is possible. Helplessness occurs when the perceived probability of avoiding the aversive stimulus with a response is the same as for no response. In other words, the response is without any perceived consequence for the occurrence of the aversive event. The organism has no control. This expectancy has been accepted as a model for anxiety and depression[iii].
Hopelessness is even worse. This term is used for an acquired expectancy that most or all responses lead to negative results. Hopelessness is more directly opposite of coping than helplessness, since it is negative response outcome expectancy. There is control, responses have effects, but they are all negative. The negative outcome is his or her fault since the individual has control. This introduces the element of guilt, which may make hopelessness an even better model for depression than helplessness.